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1分钟学懂7个光圈的必修知识

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  在著名的「曝光铁三角」中,光圈、快门和ISO也是密不可分的三个元素,其中光圈因为在镜头里,变化和选择也比较多,令很多初学摄影的同学混乱,让我们在这篇文章学习一下7个有关光圈的必修知识,将来去买镜头时便不怕被骗了啊!
1.jpg
(一) 光圈值和光圈级数
  光圈我们一般会用f来表示,像f/1.4、f/8等,光圈值越小,代表光圈越大,可以让更多光线通过;记得光圈的大小和其数字是刚好相反的,因此f/1.4是大光圈,而 f/8 是小光圈,不要弄错啊!
  光圈级数可以分为1级、1/2级甚至1/3级,基本上1级增加的光圈值为以下,每降低1级光圈也会减小一半入光量,因此当你比较f/1.4和f/2.8光圈时其实f/1.4是大上很多的啊!
  (大光圈) f/1 > f/1.4 > f/2 > f/2.8 > f/4 > f/5.6 > f/8 > f/11 > f/16 > f/22 > f/32 (小光圈)
  现在很多相机也可以控制光圈以1/3级来调较,因此你会看到f/6.3、f/13等光圈了。
2.jpg
(二) 光圈越大,深景越浅
  光圈除了控制入光量外,也会对景深有影响,在相同焦距,光圈越大景深便越浅,即是背景和前景会更模糊。但要注意的是,要做出浅景深,光圈不是唯一的元素,因此不应胡乱迷信「大光圈镜头」啊!
3.jpg
(三) 光圈叶数量会影响星芒效果
  如果你细心阅读镜头的技术规格,你会注意到一项叫「光圈叶数量」,一般光圈叶数量会介乎5-9片,当光圈叶数量为单数时,星芒的线条会较清晰,各位可以留意啊!
4.jpg
(四) 光圈叶数量多散景比较圆
  当光圈叶数量多的时候,即使把光圈收细了,散景也可以拍得比较圆。
5.jpg
(五) 不要把光圈收得太小
  在第二点提到光圈越大,景深越浅,因此如果拍风景时想全张相片也清晰,最好是把光圈收小,但千万要避免使用最小光圈,因为当光圈太小时会出现散射的物理现象,导至相片成像质量下降,反而会令相片不够清晰,因此如果可以,使用 f/8-11 光圈通常也是最好的啊!
6.jpg
(六) 什么是恒定光圈镜头?
  很多随机购买的套装镜头也会是变焦镜头,在镜头规格你会看到f/3.5-5.6等这字符串,这是代表当镜头焦距变大时,最大光圈会由f/3.5渐渐降到只有f/5.6,留意这里说的是「最大光圈」而不是可用光圈,例子:当你的镜头是18-55mm f/3.5-5.6,当你使用 18mm 时可以利用f/3.5、f/8、f/11等光圈;而当你在使用55mm时光圈可以由f/5.6开始(不能调到f/3.5大光圈了)。要避免这个最大光圈随焦距缩小的问题,你可以购买「恒定光圈」的镜头,镜头的规格只会有一个光圈值,例子24-70mm f/2.8,即是不论你使用那一个焦距,你也可以使用f/2.8的最大光圈!虽然恒定光圈的镜头很方便,但一般价格高,重量体积也会相对较大。
7.jpg
(七) 使用「增距镜」后最大光圈会减小
  如果你使用「增距镜」(Teleconverter) 来增加镜头焦距,你的最大光圈也会相对减小,例如一支f/4的镜头套用了2x的增距镜,最大光圈便会由f/4下降2x到只有f/8了!但要留意不是所有镜头也适用于增距镜的,购买时需小心看清楚啊!
8.jpg

后记
  以上便是7个有关光圈的必懂知识,希望可以帮到各位同学多一点认识这个摄影中重要的元素。

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罂粟花荼毒  新手上路  发表于 2016-4-22 18:05:28 | 显示全部楼层
涨知识了!

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我想境境  版主  发表于 2016-4-22 21:30:35 | 显示全部楼层
谢谢版主分享!

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sxfl_admin  管理员  发表于 2016-12-5 16:50:00 | 显示全部楼层
非常用有

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小源  管理员  发表于 2016-12-8 10:28:53 | 显示全部楼层
一个光圈就这么多学问

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vWskkDz0m  等待验证会员  发表于 2017-5-16 14:27:39 | 显示全部楼层

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vWskkDz0m  等待验证会员  发表于 2017-6-9 21:57:03 | 显示全部楼层

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vWskkDz0m  等待验证会员  发表于 2017-6-10 14:56:49 | 显示全部楼层

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张文  等待验证会员  发表于 2017-6-18 02:10:13 | 显示全部楼层

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张文  等待验证会员  发表于 2017-6-19 09:50:23 | 显示全部楼层

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   http://jiamei.im/forum.php?mod=viewthread&tid=583910&pid=660521&page=1&extra=page=1#pid660521
  
   http://joypigeon.com/forum.php?mod=post&action=reply&fid=44&tid=6857&extra=page=1&replysubmit=yes&infloat=yes&handlekey=fastpost
[url=http://www.countryheatdvd.com/]country heat[/

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